Transcriptional responses of Anopheles gambiae s.s mosquito larvae to chronic exposure of cadmium heavy metal [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations]

Show simple item record  Muturi, Catherine N. Rono, Martin K.  Masiga, Daniel K. Wachira, Francis N. Ochieng, Richard Mireji, Paul O. 2018-07-05T06:25:41Z 2018-07-05T06:25:41Z 2018
dc.identifier.citation F1000Research, 2018, 6:2173 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 2046-1402
dc.description (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.13062.2 en_US
dc.description.abstract Background: Anopheles gambiae larvae traditionally thrive in non-polluted environments. We previously documented the presence of the larvae in heavy metal polluted urban aquatic environments and the associated biological cost. The goal of this study was to unravel the molecular dynamics involved in the adaptation of the mosquitoes to the heavy metals. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from third instar larvae of both cadmium treated populations and untreated control populations. The RNA concentrations were normalized and complementary DNAs were prepared. Then annealing control primer (ACP) technology was applied to establish transcriptional responses in An. gambiae larvae following several generational (n=90) chronic exposures to cadmium. Differentially expressed genes were determined by their differential banding patterns on an agarose gel. Gel extraction and purification was then carried out on the DEGs and these were later cloned and sequenced to establish the specific transcripts.    Results: We identified 14 differentially expressed transcripts in response to the cadmium exposure in the larvae. Most (11) of the transcripts were up-regulated in response to the cadmium exposure and were putatively functionally associated with metabolism, transport and protein synthesis processes. The transcripts included ATP-binding cassette transporter, eupolytin, ribosomal RNA, translation initiation factor, THO complex, lysosomal alpha-mannosidase, sodium-independent sulfate anion transporter and myotubularin related protein 2. The down-regulated transcripts were functionally associated with signal transduction and proteolytic activity and included Protein G12, adenylate cyclase and endoplasmic reticulum metallopeptidase. Conclusions: Our findings shed light on pathways functionally associated with the adaptation to heavy metals that can be targeted in integrated vector control programs, and potential An. gambiae larvae biomarkers for assessment of environmental stress or contamination. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher F1000Research en_US
dc.subject Anopheles gambiae larvae en_US
dc.subject  differentially expressed genes en_US
dc.subject cadmium en_US
dc.subject  heavy metal tolerance en_US
dc.title   Transcriptional responses of Anopheles gambiae s.s mosquito larvae to chronic exposure of cadmium heavy metal [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations] en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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